First report of stolbur phytoplasma (16SrXII-A) on strawberry in Northern Italy. In order to evaluate the epidemiological role of "CaPhytoplasma solani," a 3-year survey was conducted in southeastern France. Over the past few decades ‘ Candidatus Phytoplasma solani’, belonging to the 16SrXII-A ribosomal subgroup, has been found to cause a range of plant diseases in different agro-ecosystems in many countries in Europe and the eastern Mediterranean area and a number of others all over the world. First report of Candidatus phytoplasma solani associated with potato plants in Greece. Cultivated and wild plantain (Plantago major) as a host of Stolbur phytoplasma in Serbia. Plant Disease. Incidence of Bois Noir phytoplasma in different viticulture regions of Spain and Stolbur isolates distribution in plants and vectors. Vitis, 48(2), 87-95. http://vitis-vea.zadi.de, Plavec, J., Križanac, I., Budinšcak, Ž., Škoric, D., Music, M. Š., 2015. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 153(1), 183-195. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10658-018-1553-1, Kosovac, A., Radonjic, S., Hrncic, S., Krstic, O., Toševski, I., Jovic, J., 2016. Plant Disease. Phytoplasma solani’ based on nested PCR for the amplification of universal or group-specific phytoplasma 16S rRNA gene and on restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the amplicons using appropriate restriction enzymes for determining subgroup affiliation (Lee et al., 1998). DOI:10.1094/PD-72-0268E, Riedle-Bauer M, Sára A, Regner F, 2008. European Journal of Plant Pathology. Bulletin of Insectology, 64(Supplement), S63-S64. Phytoplasma solani" is also associated with the tree peony (Paeonia suffruticosa) yellows disease in China.. Phytoplasma solani’ produces typical grapevine yellows (GY) symptoms, including desiccation of inflorescences, berry shrivel, leaf discoloration, reduction of growth and irregular ripening of wood (Belli et al., 2010). Phytoplasmas are cell-wall-less plant pathogenic bacteria of the class Mollicutes, which inhabit the phloem sieve tubes of plants and have been associated with several hundred diseases affecting economically important crops. Phytoplasmas are cell-wall-less plant pathogenic bacteria of the class Mollicutes, which inhabit the phloem sieve tubes of plants and have been associated with several hundred diseases affecting economically important crops. Gene, 472(1/2), 37-41. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T39-51C4RSN-1&_user=10&_coverDate=02%2F01%2F2011&_rdoc=6&_fmt=high&_orig=browse&_origin=browse&_zone=rslt_list_item&_srch=doc-info(%23toc%234941%232011%23995279998%232846776%23FLA%23display%23Volume)&_cdi=4941&_sort=d&_docanchor=&_ct=8&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=fa183257cc8705a299631eb2d24c0b8c&searchtype=a doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2010.10.012, Fialová, R., Válová, P., Balakishiyeva, G., Danet, J. L., Šafárová, D., Foissac, X., Navrátil, M., 2009. P. convolvuli' associated with grapevine bois noir and bindweed yellows, respectively, in Georgia. A yellows-type disease, named "stolbur", was found several decades ago affecting various plants in the Solanaceae family (mainly potato and tomato) in southern and eastern Europe (transmitted by the cixiid planthopper Hyalesthes obsoletus): on pepper in southern Russia (Sukhov and Vovk, 1946) and Yugoslavia (Panjan, 1950), and on tomatoes in Italy (Ciccarone, 1951) and France (Cousin et al., 1968). Occurrence and distribution of bois noir phytoplasma in Turkey. In: Petria, 21 (2/3) 110-111. HTTP://www.apsnet.org doi: 10.1094/PDIS-92-4-0654A. Bulletin of Insectology, 64(Supplement), S217-S218. 40 (3), 311-318. http://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/agriculture/issues/tar-16-40-3/tar-40-3-2-1506-58.pdf, Atanasova B, Jakovljević M, Spasov D, Jović J, Mitrović M, Toševski I, Cvrković T, 2015. In: Working Groups of COST Action FA0807: Integrated management of phytoplasma epidemics in different crop systems, Sitges, Spain, 1-2 February 2010. p 5. Genetic variability of stolbur phytoplasma in annual crop and wild plant species in south Moravia. Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences Série D, 54, 887-895. ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma solani’ is a phytoplasma of the stolbur group (16SrXII subgroup A) that is associated with ‘Bois noir’ and causes heavy damage to the quality and quantity of grapevine yields in several European countries, and particularly in the Mediterranean area. Journal of Phytopathology, 157(11/12), 682-685. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/jph doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0434.2009.01560.x, Rashidi, M., Habili, N., Ghasemi, A., 2010. Plant Disease. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 126(3), 217-227. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/eea doi: 10.1111/j.1570-7458.2007.00655.x, Josic D, Starovic M, Kojic S, Pivic R, Stanojkovic-Sebic A, Zdravkovic M, Pavlovic S, 2015. Phytoplasma solani’ is not thought to be transmitted in the true seed of any of its hosts, but it can be transmitted by vegetative propagation of infected host plants (EFSA Panel on Plant Health, 2014). First report of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma solani' associated with pepper chlorosis of sweet pepper, Capsicum annuum L., in Japan. 93 (8), 789-796. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-93-8-0789, Gao Ying, Qiu PingPing, Liu WenHao, Su WenMin, Gai ShuPeng, Liang YuanCun, Zhu XiaoPing, 2013. Molecular characterization of phytoplasmas associated with peach diseases in Iran. Marcone, C., Ragozzino, A., Seemüller, E., 1997. Petria, 21(2/3): 110-111, Navrátil, M., Válová, P., Fialová, R., Lauterer, P., Šafárová, D., Starý, M., 2009. A phytoplasma was identified from symptomatic Babylon willow (Salix babylonica Linn) trees growing in urban areas in Isfahan, Yazd and Markazi provinces of Iran. Stolbur detection in Spain by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Vitis. Lee IngMing, Gundersen-Rindal, D. E., Davis, R. E., Bartoszyk, I. M., 1998. Grapevine yellows in Italy: past, present and future. Boletín de Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas. First Report of a "Candidatus Phytoplasma solani" Related Strain Associated with a Potato Reddening Disease in Greece. Corn with symptoms of reddening: new host of stolbur phytoplasma. Potato Research. Phytoplasma solani’ has a wide range of diverse host plants, although many of them represent dead-end hosts because the vectors do not develop on them. Grapevine yellows induced by phytoplasmas. 96 (3), 603. http://sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/3179/1851, Allahverdi T, Rahimian H, Babaeizad V, 2014a. Phytoplasma solani’ in Serbia; Reptalus quinquecostatus has been reported as a putative vector in Serbia and France, but its capability to transmit the phytoplasma to plants has not been established (Cvrković et al., 2014; Chuche et al., 2016; Mitrovic et al., 2016). 92 (4), 654. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma solani' infection changes the Fe distribution in tomato leaves, affects the photosynthetic machinery and perturbs the orchestration of root-mediated transport processes by compromising shoot-to-root communication. Plant Disease. DOI:10.1111/jph.12672, Zamharir M G, Taheri P, 2017. Diversity among mycoplasma-like organisms inducing grapevine yellows in France. Sukhov KS, Vovk AM, 1946. Minucci C, Boccardo G, 1997. Journal of Plant Pathology. Geographical distribution of "bois noir" phytoplasmas infecting grapevines in the Republic of Macedonia. Hodgetts J, Flint L J, Daly M, Harju V A, Skelton A L, Fox A, 2015. Phytoplasma solani’ strains within the tuf-types (Murolo and Romanazzi, 2015). 'Stolbur'-a new Potato disease in Israel. 'Bois noir': new phytoplasma disease of grapevine in Iran. Internodes near to the plant apex are shorter and present smaller curled leaves with ticker tissues. Detection and identification of phytoplasmas infecting vegetable, ornamental and forage crops in Southern Italy. Journal of Phytopathology, 161(3), 197-200. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1439-0434 doi: 10.1111/jph.12025, Genov, N., Mitrovic, J., Genov, M., Duduk, B., 2014. Name: "Candidatus Phytoplasma solani" Quaglino et al. The need then became evident for suitable diagnostic tests for a faster and specific detection of grapevine phytoplasmas. Petria, 21(2/3): 118-119, Chinmay Biswas, Piyali Dey, Subrata Satpathy, 2014. Plant Disease. The leaves are discoloured and/or show yellowing/purpling. Agronomie. Journal of Phytopathology , 165(7-8), 407-413. doi: 10.1111/jph.12574, Zamharir MG, Taheri P, 2017. Journal of Phytopathology, 156(1), 8-14. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1439-0434.2007.01311.x, Ivanovic, Ž., Trkulja, N., Živkovic, S., Dolovac, E. P., Dolovac, N., Jovic, J., Mitrovic, M., 2011. Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser. Canadian Entomologist, 141(5), 425-462. http://article.pubs.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/RPAS/rpv?hm=HInit&calyLang=eng&journal=ent&volume=141&afpf=n08-CPA02.pdf doi: 10.4039/n08-CPA02. Plant Disease. Transmission of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma solani' by Reptalus quinquecostatus (Hemiptera: Cixiidae). In recent years, phytoplasma-induced discoloration of fried potatoes has been discussed more intensively. In parallel, a yellows-type disease of grapevine, named "bois noir" (BN) was first reported in 1961 in vineyards of north-eastern France. 21 (3), 417-423. Journal of Phytopathology. In the present work, stolbur disease strain STOL11 (STOL) was distinguished from reference strains of previously described species of the ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma’ genus based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity and a unique signature sequence in the 16S rRNA gene. Palermo, S., Ember, I., Botti, S., Elekes, M., Alma, A., Bertaccini, A., Orosz, A., Kölber, M., 2006. Due to its complex ecology and epidemiological cycle, and to the high capability to adapt to different agro-ecosystems, the risk of introduction of ‘Ca. First report of 16SrXII-A subgroup phytoplasma (stolbur) associated with reddening of Oenothera biennis in Serbia. In diseased plants, they are restricted to the phloem sieve tubes; they are transmitted between plants by phloem-sap-feeding leafhoppers, planthoppers or psyllids (Weintraub and Beanland, 2006). Plant Disease. ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma solani’, also known as stolbur phytoplasma, affects a wide range of wild and cultivated plants including grape (Maixner, 2011), corn (Jović et al., 2009), and solanaceous hosts (EPPO, n.d.). Prevalence and distribution of peach yellow leaf roll in north of Iran. Bulletin of Insectology, 60(2), 153-154. http://www.bulletinofinsectology.org/, Salem, N. M., Quaglino, F., Abdeen, A., Casati, P., Bulgari, D., Alma, A., Bianco, P. A., 2013. Journal of Phytopathology, 158(2), 105-110. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/jph doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0434.2009.01585.x, Zwolinska, A., Krawczyk, K., Pospieszny, H., 2012. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers), Continental climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. Phytoplasmas are prokaryotic plant pathogens that colonize the sieve elements of their host plant, causing severe alterations in phloem function and impairment of assimilate translocation. Journal of General Plant Pathology. However, the use of herbicides and/or insecticides can have negative effects on non-target arthropods (e.g. European Journal of Plant Pathology. Diagnosis, epidemiology and research. P. solani’ can cause yield losses of 60 % in tomato, 90 % in pepper, and 100 % in celery. Forest Pathology. Detection of Flavescence dorée and Bois noir phytoplasmas, Grapevine leafroll associated virus-1 and -3 and Grapevine virus A from the same crude extract by reverse transcription-RealTime Taqman assays. Vitis, 43(4), 191-199. First report of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma solani' in sunflower in Bulgaria. Plant Disease, 98(7), 991. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis doi: 10.1094/PDIS-12-13-1220-PDN, Girsova, N., Bottner, K. D., Mozhaeva, K. A., Kastalyeva, T. B., Owens, R. A., Lee, I. M., 2008. Bulletin of Insectology, 64(Supplement), S239-S240. Survey and molecular detection of phytoplasmas associated with potato in Romania and southern Russia. Multiple gene analyses identify distinct "bois noir" phytoplasma genotypes in the Republic of Macedonia. 34 (1), 15-17. A phytoplasma was observed by electron microscopy and identified as ‘ Candidatus Phytoplasma solani’, based on homology searches and molecular phylogeny using nucleotide sequences of 16S rDNA. In the European Union, ‘Ca. Unlike the situation with most crop plants, H. obsoletus can complete its life cycle on lavender; thus, disease propagation is epidemic and lavender fields can be destroyed within 4–5 years in south-eastern France (Foissac et al., 2013). Journal of Phytopathology. Plant Disease. As the epidemiological cycle of GY complex diseases, associated with distinct phytoplasmas, is different and determines specific management strategies, it is crucial to identify the phytoplasmas infecting plants affected by GY. Plant Disease. Plant Disease, 88(8), 906. http://www.apsnet.org doi: 10.1094/PDIS.2004.88.8.906A. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 38(8), 1017-1030. http://www.springerlink.com/link.asp?id=104273 doi: 10.1007/s10886-012-0154-2, Sabaté, J., Laviña, A., Batlle, A., 2014. Diversity among mycoplasma-like organisms inducing grapevine yellows in France. Panjan M, 1950. Insecticides applied to the crop canopy inﬂuence neither the disease nor the presence of the main vector, Hyalesthes obsoletus. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma solani', a novel taxon associated with stolbur- and bois noir-related diseases of plants. Identification of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma solani' associated with tree peony yellows disease in China. Bulletin of Insectology, 60(2), 379-380. http://www.bulletinofinsectology.org/. Plant Pathology. Phytoplasma solani’-associated diseases affecting major crops are described in the following paragraphs.