For example, fishing gear may wrap around a whale’s mouth and prevent them from feeding or they can drown in a net from not being able to surface for air. This helps us most accurately estimate the population size and monitor population trends. In the first decade of the 2000s, it grew steadily but at a rate well below those of many other populations of large whales. To protect right whales, NOAA Fisheries has regulations that prohibit approaching or remaining within 500 yards (1,500 feet) of a right whale—500 yards is the length of about five football fields. Human-caused mortality and serious injury is the greatest obstacle to the species’ recovery. NOAA Fisheries and our partners are dedicated to conserving and rebuilding the North Atlantic right whale population. The designation of an area as critical habitat does not create a closed area, marine protected area, refuge, wilderness reserve, preservation, or other conservation area; nor does the designation affect land ownership. Scientific Name: Eubalaena glacialis. Both whales were popular prey for the whaling boats that plied coastal waters in the 1600s and 1700s because they could be found relatively close to shore. To reduce collisions with right whales, mariners are urged to use caution and proceed at safe speeds in areas where right whales occur. North Atlantic right whales face many threats, including changes to their migratory patterns and feeding areas due to climate change, vessel strikes, entanglement in fishing gear, and the impacts of ocean noise on their ability to communicate, find food, and navigate. Common Name: North Atlantic Right Whale. An aerial survey team from Center for Coastal Studies spotted an entangled right whale south of Nantucket on October 19, 2020. Collisions between whales and large vessels often go unnoticed and unreported, even though whales can be injured or killed and ships can sustain damage. Washington, DC 20037. When viewing right whales, you might see these enormous creatures breaching and then crashing back down with a thunderous splash. World Wildlife Fund Inc. is a nonprofit, tax-exempt charitable organization (tax ID number 52-1693387) under Section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code. Participate in public meetings and share your perspectives with Take Reduction Team members who represent your constituency. Length as an adult: 52 ft (16 m) Weight as an adult: 77 tons (69 kg) Length and Weight at birth: 12ft (3.5 m) 1 ton (0.9 kg) Length of Pregnancy: 12 months. Right whales present a unique challenge to tagging efforts because they are social animals that often engage in physical contact with each other, putting tremendous stress on tags attached to their bodies. A dip in right whale births and lengthened calving intervals (from 3 - 5 years to 6 -10 years) indicates that reproductively active females have struggled in recent years to find sufficient food resources to support pregnancy. During the 1990s, the right whale population fluctuated between periods of slow decline and periods of slow growth. While this is the typical pattern, migration patterns vary for some of these whales. Monitor the population size and trends in abundance of the species. Their characteristic feature is raised patches of rough skin, called callosities, on their heads, which appear white because of whale lice (cyamids). For information on our many efforts—including our recovery plan, implementation teams, critical habitat designations, vessel strike reduction, fishing gear entanglement reduction, and stranding response—to help North Atlantic right whales recover, visit our conservation and management page. In the spring, summer, and into fall. Pectoral flippers are relatively short, broad, and paddle-shaped. Photo credit: NOAA/NMFS . Colleagues and scientists of the Northeast's Passive Acoustic Research Group collected the sounds on this page. Numerous organizations around the country are trained and ready to respond. Some strandings can serve as indicators of ocean health, giving insight into larger environmental issues that may also have implications for human health and welfare. Entanglement in fishing gear and vessel strikes are among the leading causes of North Atlantic right whale mortality. It is now mostly found along the Atlantic coast of North America, where it is threatened by entanglement in fishing gear and ship collisions. It is a big, mostly black animal with some whitish patches on its head and belly, it lacks a dorsal fin, and it has a graceful, deeply notched tail or "fluke". They have been listed as endangered under the ESA since 1970. Scientists measured a significant amount of chronic noise (“acoustic smog”) in a critical North Atlantic right whale feeding area. Our scientists collect population information on right whales from various sources and present the data in an annual stock assessment report. Cetacea is an infraorder that comprises the 89 species of whales, dolphins, and porpoises.It … Published Date: 2010. The right whales were first classified in the genus Balaena in 1758 by Carl Linnaeus, who at the time considered all of the right whales (including the bowhead) as a single species. Right whales often A 5-year review is based on the best scientific and…, We, NMFS, completed a status review of right whales in the North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in December 2006 and are listing the currently endangered northern right whale (Eubalaena spp.) North Atlantic Right Whale Unusual Mortality Event. Any vessel within 500 yards of a right whale must depart immediately at a safe, slow speed. NOAA Fisheries and our partners estimate that over 85 percent of right whales have been entangled in fishing gear at least once. In 2000, the International Whaling Commission’s Scientific Committee, after considering genetic and morphological data, decided to retain the generic name of Eubalaena for right whales, and recognize three species, E. glacialis for the North Atlantic, E. australis for all southern hemisphere right whales, and E. japonica for the North Pacific. Right whales feed by opening their mouths while swimming slowly through large patches of copepods and other zooplankton. CONSERVATION STATUS: Endangered. Research has indicated that North Atlantic right whales also play a key role in marine ecosystems in an unexpected way. A North Atlantic right whale calf was discovered dead on the shore of a barrier island off North Carolina on Friday, according to officials. Underwater noise threatens whale populations, interrupting their normal behavior and driving them away from areas important to their survival. This is another way to learn more about where and when these whales are present in different areas (at least during times they are vocalizing) where visual surveys are not likely to be effective. Unfortunately, studies have found that these voluntary measures are not very effective in modifying vessel speed or direction of travel, and therefore likely do little to reduce vessel collisions. We are currently developing a Species in the Spotlight 5-Year Priority Actions plan that builds on the. Join us to make change. Today, only about 400 North Atlantic right whales remain. The Partners of the North Atlantic Right Whale Consortium include many groups who share a common interest - research and using the results of that research to formulate science-based conservation measures to protect the North Atlantic right whale. NOAA Fisheries and our partners also use small unmanned aircraft systems—commonly called “drones”—to assess individual right whale size and body condition, as well as taking breath samples to analyze factors such as genetics and stress hormones. The cladogram is a tool for visualizing and comparing the evolutionary relationships between taxa. Learn more about the Southeast U.S. In the spring, summer, and into fall, many of these whales can be found in waters off New England and further north into Canadian waters, where they feed and mate. In recent years, we've recorded more deaths among adult females than males. Pectoral flippers are relatively short, broad, and paddle-shaped. Our work includes: We conduct various research activities on the biology, behavior, and ecology of the North Atlantic right whale. Scientific Name Eubalaena glacialis Author (Müller, 1776) Taxonomic Rank Species Taxonomic # 180537 Common Names English: North Atlantic Right Whale English: black right whale French: baleine noire Spanish English D espite international protection from commercial whaling since 1935, the North Atlantic right whale ( Eubalaena glacialis ) [[HN1]] remains one of the most endangered whales in the world (). Tracking individuals over time to monitor important population traits. If that is not possible, the next best option is for vessels to slow down and keep a lookout. But now, on average, females are having calves every 6 to 10 years. The species got its name as the “right” whale to hunt: these animals swim slowly close to shore and are so blubber-rich they float when dead. These collisions can cause broken bones and massive internal injuries or cuts from vessel propellers. Understanding the whales’ migration patterns helps managers establish measures to reduce vessel strikes and limit the overlap between fisheries and whales. Car ferry, Bay of Fundy, New Brunswick, Canada. The designation of an area as critical habitat does not create a closed area, marine protected area, refuge, wilderness reserve, preservation, or other conservation area; nor does the designation affect land ownership. Our Passive Acoustics Research Group frequently makes the news. NOAA Fisheries has designated two critical habitat areas to provide important feeding, nursery, and calving habitat for North Atlantic right whales: Right whales can probably live at least 70 years, but data on their average lifespan is limited. E. japonica is a very large, thickset baleen whale. The point where a node branches off is analogous to an evolutionary branching – the diagram can be read left-to-right, much like a timeline. Right whales migrate seasonally and may travel alone or in small groups. ! Whaling for almost 1000 years brought this species close to extinction in the early 20th century (). Three to four years is considered a normal or healthy interval between right whale calving events. learn more about right whales. The North Atlantic right whale is one of the largest species of aquatic mammals currently found in nature. Stay informed of all the latest regional news around NOAA Fisheries, The North Atlantic right whale is one of the world’s most endangered large whale species, with only about 400 whales remaining. Status The Northwest Atlantic population of the North Atlantic right whale was assessed in 1980, 1985, 1990, 2003 and 2013 by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC), which determined its designation to be “endangered” each time. North Atlantic Right Whale SCIENTIFIC NAME: Eubalaena glacialis. These impacts are another reason that female right whales are having fewer calves and are taking longer to have calves. World map providing approximate representation of the North Atlantic right whale's range. Female right whales become sexually mature at about age 10. The natural system is balanced through food webs and nutrient transport, with every species contributing to that balance. By the early 1890s, commercial whalers had hunted right whales in the Atlantic to the brink of extinction. They have been listed as endangered under the ESA since 1970. Specifically, we have taken both regulatory and non-regulatory steps to reduce the threat of vessel collisions to North Atlantic right whales, including: The most effective way to reduce collision risk is to keep whales and vessels apart. Scientists use small aircraft to spot North Atlantic right whales and photograph them to identify individuals and record their seasonal distribution. They give birth to a single calf after a year-long pregnancy. You might also see them swimming along with their rostrum out of the water as they skim feed on dense patches of plankton. NOAA Fisheries is working to protect this species in many ways, with the goal that its population will increase. With human coastal populations and infrastructure growing at an exponential rate, an increased global demand for fisheries products, and a rapidly expanding maritime transport industry, threats of entanglement in fishing gear, ship strikes, and habitat loss have never been more severe. Discover How Long North Atlantic Right Whale Lives. To better inform the public of the most recent right whale sightings, NOAA scientists maintain a database which displays real-time sightings on an interactive Google map. Scientific Assistance for Very Endangered North Atlantic Right Whales Act of 2019 or the SAVE Right Whales Act. The North Atlantic right whale population is estimated to be around 400. The Network has successfully disentangled close to 30 North Atlantic right whales over the years. Although the cause often remains unknown, scientists can sometimes identify strandings due to disease, harmful algal blooms, vessel strikes, fishing gear entanglements, pollution exposure, and underwater noise. Warming oceans can affect the food sources whales need to survive. Make a symbolic whale adoption to help save some of the world's most endangered animals from extinction and support WWF's conservation efforts. Southeast, NMFS announces a 5-year review of North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) and North Pacific right whale (Eubalaena japonica) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA), as amended. There are now more males than females in the population, and that gap is widening. Our work includes: Please report all right whale sightings from Virginia to Maine at (866) 755-6622, and from Florida to North Carolina at 877-WHALE-HELP (877) 942-5343. Rather, federal agencies that undertake, fund, or permit activities that may affect these designated critical habitat areas are required to consult with NOAA Fisheries to ensure that their actions do not adversely modify or destroy designated critical habitat. LENGTH: 45-55 feet. Implementation Team, North Atlantic Right Whale Recovery Plan Southeast U.S. in the North Atlantic, North Pacific and southern This Technical Memorandum represents a report from a three-day workshop NOAA Fisheries convened to…, The North Atlantic Right Whale Sighting Survey (NARWSS) is a NOAA Fisheries program which locates…, This report provides a summary of large whale entanglements that occurred in U.S. waters in 2017…, NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-OPR-44 Scientific Name: Eubalaena glacialis. to provide important feeding, nursery, and calving habitat for North Atlantic right whales: Off the coast of New England (foraging area). Despite their heftiness, they are accomplished acrobats and are known to breach (leap above the water) and slap their flippers and tails against the water. Reduce or eliminate injury and mortality caused by vessel collisions or by fishing gear. Never approach or try to save an injured or entangled animal yourself—it can be dangerous to both the animal and you. currently found in nature. We have fined companies for violating these speed reductions. Learn more about the organizations working to save the right whale by clicking on the names below. Just one week after scientists warned of unprecedented change brought on by warming in the Arctic, President Obama announced permanent protection for 115 million acres of federal waters in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas. WEIGHT: up to 70 tons. Information from this research can be used to inform management actions that protect the North Atlantic right whale. Learn more about marine mammal stock assessments. With such a small, slow-growing population, any threatening factor may have a significant impact. By 1750 the North Atlantic right whale was as good as extinct for commercial purposes, and the American whalers moved into the South Atlantic before the end of the 18th century. . To play a sound: Click on the audio file link; it will open and play the sound. Photo: NOAA Northeast Fisheries Science Center/Lisa Conger and Elizabeth Josephson. And examining gear removed from entangled animals is one of the key ways for us to determine whether regulations are working and fishing gear modifications are effective. MORE IN WHALE CATEGORY. 1250 24th Street, N.W. Learn more about our marine life viewing guidelines. Under the Marine Mammal Protection Act, an unusual mortality event is defined as "a stranding that is unexpected; involves a significant die-off of any marine mammal population; and demands immediate response." We engage our partners as we develop regulations and management plans that foster healthy fisheries and reduce the risk of entanglements, create whale-safe shipping practices, and reduce ocean noise. The majority of the Earth's oxygen is produced by marine phytoplankton. It was known as the "right" whale for whalers to hunt because of its slow speed, tendency to float when killed, and thick blubber layer. NOAA is working hard to develop a tracking device that will. The ultimate goal of the North Atlantic right whale plan is to recover the species, with an interim goal of down-listing its status from endangered to threatened. The idea behind the 10-knot limit is that the more slowly a vessel goes, the more time the whale has to get out of the way, and a strike at that speed is less likely to be fatal. This is a map showing North Atlantic right whale critical habitat for the Greater Atlantic and and Southeast Regions. The first North Atlantic Right Whale death in Canada this year was discovered drifting off Quebec's Gaspé coast last Tuesday, and now the whale has been identified, but the cause of death remains undetermined until a necropsy can be performed on the animal. Studies suggest that more than 85 percent of right whales have been entangled in fishing gear at least once, and about 60 percent have been entangled multiple times. maintained by our partners at the New England Aquarium help track populations over the years using a right whale’s unique pattern of callosities. Two of these threats, vessel strikes and entanglement in fishing gear, are the causes of the majority of the serious injuries and mortalities in the ongoing North Atlantic Right Whale Unusual Mortality Event. NORTH ATLANTIC RIGHT WHALE. General: This bill provides support for the conservation of North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis). North Atlantic populations have been decimated by historical over-exploitation by the whaling industry. Scientists use these patterns to identify individual whales, an invaluable tool in tracking population size and health. North Atlantic right whales are enormous, slow swimming, baleen whales. Once, thousands of right whales could be found in the Atlantic Ocean, but by the late 1880s they had been hunted to near extinction. ). New data suggests that the North Atlantic right whale is now on a faster pace to extinction, alarming many in the scientific community. Right whale sightings in any location may also be reported to the U.S. Coast Guard via channel 16 or through the Whale Alert app. In return, the vessel receives a message about right whales, their vulnerability to ship strikes, precautionary measures to avoid hitting a whale, and locations of recent sightings. Two other species of right whale exist in the worlds oceans: the North Pacific right whale, which is found in the Pacific Ocean, and the southern right whale, which is found in the southern hemisphere. For the best experience, please use a modern browser such as Chrome, Firefox, or Edge. NOAA is working hard to develop a tracking device that will stay attached to right whales and not compromise the health of these animals. The photographs and other data collected (time, date, location, behavior) are used by researchers to investigate things like body condition, behavior, and life history. Tracks the implementation of recovery actions from Endangered Species Act (ESA) recovery plans. The North Atlantic right whale is NOAA Fisheries' newest Species in the Spotlight. The faster a vessel is transiting when it hits a whale, the higher the likelihood of serious injury or death. North Atlantic Right Whale Scientific name: Eubalaena glaciallis Mi’kmaq name: Description The Right Whale is a large, relatively rotund whale, with a square chin and no dorsal fin. Only 22 births have been observed in the four calving seasons since 2017, less than one-third the previous average annual birth rate for right whales. Understanding the whales’ migration patterns helps managers establish measures to reduce vessel strikes and limit the overlap between fisheries and whales. Right whales communicate using low-frequency moans, groans, and pulses. Common Name: North Atlantic right whale Species synopsis: The North Atlantic right whale, which was first listed as endangered under the Endangered Species Act in 1973, is considered to be critically endangered (Clapham et al 1999, NMFS 2013). It very closely resembles the North Atlantic right whale (E. glacialis) the southern right whale (E. australis), so much so they were long thought to be just one species.Indeed, without knowing which ocean an individual came from, the physical similarities are so extensive that individuals can only be identified to species by genetic analysis. View our inclusive approach to conservation, US permanently protects some of the Arctic's most important marine areas. Right whales present a unique challenge to tagging efforts because they are social animals that often engage in physical contact with each other, putting tremendous stress on tags attached to their bodies. Map of recommended shipping lanes to protect whales. [Figure] Starboard, a female right whale, died off Canada's coast after dragging snow crab traps for days. Increasing ocean noise levels from human activities interferes with whale communication, and is also a concern. No reasonable doubt that the last individual has died, Known only to survive in cultivation, in captivity or as a naturalised population, Facing an extremely high risk of extinction in the Wild, Facing a high risk of extinction in the Wild, Likely to qualify for a threatened category in the near future, Does not qualify for Critically Endangered, Endangered, Vulnerable, or Near Threatened. This initiative is a concerted, agency-wide effort to spotlight and save marine species that are among the most at risk of extinction in the near future. In addition, when entangled whales are reported anywhere along the East Coast, the NOAA-funded Atlantic Large Whale Disentanglement Network is called upon to try to help. North Atlantic right whales are one of the most endangered large whale species on the planet. This means that North Atlantic right whales are in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of their range. Organic fragments, or detritus, enrich the sediments nearby for over a year, and the bones of the whale’s skeleton can provide habitat for invertebrate communities for decades. We use a variety of innovative techniques to study, protect, and rescue these endangered whales. The network is made up of emergency responders from 20 public and private organizations who have extensive training in how to disentangle large whales and increase their odds of surviving. The southmost Brazilian whaling station was established in 1796, in Imbituba. These tiny ocean inhabitants also help to absorb CO. , so healthy phytoplankton levels also help to combat climate change. When whales die and their bodies sink, they also provide essential nutrient resources to the ocean floor ecosystems. The whale was a nine-year-old known as Wolverine and he was familiar to researchers because of scars on his tale that were the … North Atlantic right whales are one of the most endangered large whale species in the world. Today, the species is threatened by ship collisions, entanglement in fishing nets, and separation from calving areas because of shipping traffic. The network is made up of emergency responders from 20 public and private organizations who have extensive training in how to disentangle large whales and increase their odds of surviving. North Atlantic right whales are an iconic New England species that attract tourists and locals alike to the ocean, hoping to catch a glimpse. Right and bowhead whales once overlapped in distribution, and may again if populations recover. The Marine Mammal Protection Act provides a structure, through the Take Reduction Process, for stakeholder voices to be heard and the opportunity for entanglement risk reduction innovation to come from the people who will be most impacted by future regulatory action. Each right whale has a unique pattern of these callosities. The Network has successfully disentangled close to 30 North Atlantic right whales over the years. Females, by going through the energetic stress of reproduction, are more susceptible than males to dying from entanglement or vessel strike injuries. Established in 1964, the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species has evolved to become the world’s most comprehensive information source on the global conservation status of animal, fungi and plant species. NOAA Fisheries is actively collaborating with Canada through ongoing bilateral negotiations on the science and management gaps that are impeding the recovery of North Atlantic right whales in both Canadian and U.S. waters. Scientists suspect that these calls are used to maintain contact between individuals, communicate threats, signal aggression, or for other social reasons. Today, we believe there are about 95 reproductively active females. As the federal agency charged with recovering the North Atlantic right whale, we are committed to recovering the species by significantly reducing risks from entanglement and vessel strikes. 18. There are several species, but all are identified by enormous heads, which can measure up to one-third of their total body length. Even though they are large animals, whales can become accidentally caught in fishing nets. Under the ESA, NOAA Fisheries is required to develop and implement recovery plans for the conservation and survival of listed species. The right whale got its name because it was the right whale to hunt —it moved slowly and would float after being killed. Citation: North Atlantic right whales are in much poorer condition than Southern right whales (2020, April 23) retrieved 25 November This document is subject to copyright. These regulations apply to vessels and aircraft (including drones), and to people using other watercraft such as surfboards, kayaks, and jet skis. Changes in distribution and availability of prey, In the Atlantic, we have taken both regulatory and non-regulatory steps to reduce the threat of vessel collisions to North Atlantic right whales, which may also reduce the threat to humpback whales, which occur in the same waters. DESCRIPTION: North Atlantic right whales were the first whales to be regularly hunted by commercial whalers. For information on our many efforts—including our recovery plan, implementation teams, critical habitat designations, vessel strike reduction, fishing gear entanglement reduction, and stranding response—to help North Atlantic right whales recover, visit our, Right whales are protected under both the. A North Atlantic right whale mother and calf spotted off the U.S. southern coast by NOAA researchers during the 2020 breeding season. When stranded animals are found dead, our scientists work to understand and investigate the cause of death. The North Atlantic right whale is one of the world’s most endangered large whale species, with only about 400 whales remaining. This page links to articles and other media featuring our staff and their research. Small population size, New England/Mid-Atlantic, The species gets its names from early whalers, who considered them to be the "right" whales to hunt. Even in the cold waters of the Atlantic Ocean they maintain a body temperature of 96.8 degree F (36 degrees Celsius) by having a thick layer (up to a foot, or 30 cm) of insulating blubber. Increasing evidence suggests that exposure to intense underwater sound in some settings may cause some species of whales to strand and ultimately die. Their head can measure up to one-third of their total body length! Entanglement in fishing gear is a primary cause of serious injury and death for many whale species, including the North Atlantic right whale. Ear wax can be used to estimate age in right whales after they have died. North Atlantic right whale - Whale & Dolphin Conservation USA Consortium meetings regularly Right whales are in a group of whales called Mysticetes, or baleen whales. North Atlantic right whale mother and calf as seen from a research drone called a hexacopter. Identifying habitat and when it is used by right whales. Photo taken under Center for Coastal Studies permit. Learn more about NOAA’s commitment to saving North Atlantic right whales. The major actions recommended in the plan are: Read the recovery plan for the North Atlantic right whale. Learn who you should contact when you encounter a stranded or injured marine animal >. The Marine Mammal Protection Act and Endangered Species Act recognize that conserving species to ensure they fulfill their role in the broader ecosystem is to everyone’s benefit. Whaling is no longer a threat, but human interactions still present the greatest danger to this species. Developing mandatory vessel reporting systems. The North-Atlantic right whale is one of the most endangered of all large whales, with a long history of human exploitation and no signs of recovery despite protection from whaling since the 1930s. Family: Balaenidae. North Atlantic right whales are one of the most endangered large whale species on the planet. ... Common Name: North Atlantic Right Whale. Aerial and ship-based surveys and the North Atlantic Right Whale Consortium’s. Each fall, some right whales travel more than 1,000 miles from these feeding grounds to the shallow, coastal waters of South Carolina, Georgia, and northeastern Florida. We work with volunteer networks in all coastal states to respond to marine mammal strandings. stay attached to right whales and not compromise the health of these animals. Reducing vessel speeds where whales are present, developing recommended shipping lanes outside of specific ports, making mariners aware when whales are around, and implementing a 500-yard “no-approach” safety zone around right whales are among the measures we use to reduce these threats. North Atlantic Right whale Scientific name: Eubalaena glacialis Maximum size and weight: 19m (65ft) & 90 tons (195 000lbs) – Females slightly larger than males As their prey moved, the whales began spending more time in areas with fewer protections from vessel strikes and entanglements. Donations are tax-deductible as allowed by law. Sometimes we don’t know how vital a species’ role is in maintaining this balance until it’s too late, and those unforeseen impacts can have a direct effect on our own existence. North Atlantic Right Whale STATUS: Endangered SCIENTIFIC NAME: Eubalaena glacialis Weighing up to 70 tons, these mammals can easily be … The recovery plan Southeast U.S Click on the right whale or death that balance separate species populations recover whale.. An unexpected way establish measures to reduce vessel strikes and entanglements mammals such as shipping boating. Glacialis ) with whale communication, and paddle-shaped the evolutionary relationships between taxa produced by marine phytoplankton is on! Changes in prey location and availability to understand and investigate the cause of.! [ 2 ] [ 3 ] ) or cuts from vessel propellers is used by right are. States and Canada disentangled close to 30 North Atlantic right whales and acquire scientific from! 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2020 north atlantic right whale scientific name